The "photovoltaic effect" is the basic physical process through which a PV cell converts sunlight into electricity. Sunlight is composed of photons, or particles of solar energy. These photons contain various amounts of energy corresponding to the different wavelengths of the solar spectrum. When photons strike a PV cell, they may be reflected or absorbed, or they may pass right through. Only the absorbed photons generate electricity. When this happens, the energy of the photon is transferred to an electron in an atom of the cell (which is actually a semiconductor).
  With its newfound energy, the electron is able to escape from its normal position associated with that atom to become part of the current in an electrical circuit. By leaving this position the electron causes a "hole" to form. Special electrical properties of the PV cell—a built-in electric field—provide the voltage needed to drive the current through an external load (such as a light bulb).

Surface texturing is an important toll to improve the conversion efficiency of silicon solar cell.

P-N Junction:
Wafers are placed in a phosphorous-rich environment to form "the transition layer" of the semiconductor device (solar cell). This process effectively makes the cells suitable for making p-n diode.

Anti-reflection coating:
Anti-reflection coating is one of the most important processes to enhance efficiency by reducing the reflection at the surface of solar cell. To form an anti-reflection coating, a layer of transparent material is deposited on the surface with precisely controlled thickness.

Electrode Formation:
Formation of metal contact. The metal contact includes front silver, rear silver and rear aluminum for BSF(back-surface field).

The wafers are fired in a high-temperature furnace. The silver and aluminum paste previously deposited on the surface, fuse and bond into the surface of the silicon.

Edge isolation:
Removal of the short circuit path between the front and rear surface of the wafers is carried out by isolating the transition layer at the edges of the wafer.